Ping:

The Ping command is used to find whether the host is alive or not.

example:

ping example.com

In order to wait for 2 seconds and then send packets use:

ping -i 2 example.com

If you want to send a specific number of packets then use the command

ping -c 5 example.com

If you want to ping the private IP of class A then use:

ping 10.*.*.*

Traceroute:

Traces the path from your computer to the destination computer.

Eg:

traceroute example.com

Subnet Mask:

Dividing a large network into small sub-networks is called subnetting. The subnet mask is masking bits to define the network and host parts.

The subnet mask helps you to organize different networks neatly.

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